In the last tutorial we learnt that aperture referred to the opening in the camera lens that allows light to enter the camera and onto the digital sensor or film. In this one, take a look a shutter speed and how it affects the look of our photographs.
What is shutter speed?
The shutter speed refers to the amount of the time the aperture actually remains open to let the light in. Shutter speed can also be referred to as “exposure time”. This can range from extremely fast shutter speeds such as 1/10,000 of a second to extremely slow shutter speeds where the aperture can remain open for several minutes.
How does your choice of shutter speed affect the look of your photograph?
The most obvious effect your choice of shutter speed will have concerns any motion in the scene you are capturing. Fast shutter speeds will appear to freeze motion. You will often see this in sports photography for example. Slower shutter speeds will do the opposite. They will blur motion. Rather unsurprisingly, this is known as motion blur.
Both fast shutter speeds and slow shutter speeds can be used to great creative effect in many genres of photography.
Let’s take a look at these three photos of a colourful windmill. A different shutter speed has been used in each one. In the first version, a fast shutter speed of 1/500 of a second has completely frozen the motion of the windmill. It looks as if it has completely stopped.
In the second photo, a much slower shutter speed of 1/30 of a second has been used. Now 1/30 of a second may seem like a very fast shutter speed. In fact, it is slow enough to blur the motion of the fast spinning windmill.
In the final photo, an even slower shutter speed of 1/4 of a second has made the spinning windmill look like a complete blur of colours. Slow shutter speeds that create this motion blur effect can be a great way of portraying movement in an otherwise static image.
How to Use Fast Shutter Speeds to Freeze Motion
Here are some more examples of how a fast shutter speed can be used to freeze a moment in time.
I generally use fast shutter speeds when shooting street photography. Street photography is often about capturing a precise moment in time. The French street photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson called it capturing the “decisive moment”. I will cover this in more detail in a future tutorial. In this case, a shutter speed of 1/400 second froze in time the cyclist as he passed the historic Georgian buildings on Merrion Square on the Southside of Dublin City.
As already mentioned, fast shutter speeds are often used in sports photography to freeze a precise moment in the game. In this case, a shutter speed of 1/500 second has captured the exact moment the ball was thrown into the air at this lineout during a rugby match featuring the mighty Leinster against Scarletts. Leinster won the match but I must admit that the Welsh were far more talented singers!
Wildlife photographers often use fast shutter speeds to freeze animals in motion and show the detail of the animal itself. I rarely take pictures of animals but this seagull in Dublin proved to be an interesting subject. A shutter speed of 1/400 second ensured I captured all the detail in his feathers. The cheeky b#####d stole my bag of chips a few seconds later.
How to Use Slow Shutter Speeds to Portray Motion
As we saw with the windmill photographs earlier, slow shutter speeds can be used to blur motion. In this photograph of a waterfall in Arnhem, The Netherlands, a relatively slow shutter speed of 1/3 second is enough to blur the flowing water to create a pleasing hazy effect that portrays this sense of movement.
In this photograph of a very busy Grafton Street in Dublin around Christmas time, I wanted to portray the movement of the people on the street as they milled about. A slow shutter speed of 1.6 seconds was enough to blur the people to achieve this. As mentioned earlier, capturing motion blur is an effective way of portraying movement in an otherwise static photograph.
Very long shutter speeds can be used creatively to capture light trails. In this case, a long shutter speed of 30 seconds has caused the lights from the moving cars to leave white and red streaks of light as they sped along the motorway below me. This is a commonly used technique in urban landscape photography. The low light at night time makes very slow shutter speeds possible.
Sometimes, we can use filters to slow down our shutter speed dramatically to create even more extreme effects. In this photo, I used a 10 stop neutral density filter to reduce the amount of light entering the lens down to 1/1000 of what it would be without the filter. This allowed me to set a very long shutter speed of 160 seconds. I used a rock steady tripod for this shot as well as a shutter release cable in order to prevent shaking the camera when pressing the shutter.
The almost 3 minute exposure time blurred the movement of the evening clouds as they moved slowly across the sky creating a very dramatic effect as well as blurring the water of the sea. Anything that wasn’t moving such as the boat remained sharp.
The Importance of a Good Tripod
When using slow shutter speeds, a high quality solid tripod is essential. I’d almost say it’s the most important piece of equipment for landscape photographers (who tend to use slow shutter speeds a lot). Even the slightest movement of the camera during a long exposure can cause camera shake and ruin the shot. A good heavy tripod also acts as a handy weapon when photographing the dodgier parts of a city.
How do I know if a shutter speed is fast enough to hand hold without worrying about camera shake?
There are times we don’t have a tripod with us or perhaps we are not permitted to use one at a particular location and we have no option but to shoot handheld. There is a simple trick to work out if your shutter speed is fast enough to do this without risking camera shake.
Take a look at your focal length value on your lens (Focal length is covered in more detail in a later tutorial). This is a measure of the angle of view or how much you have zoomed in or out. It is measured in millimetres with lower values signifying wider angles and higher values showing that your lens has zoomed in closer to the subject.
Simply take your focal length, multiply it by 2 and then divide by 1. For example, a focal length of 60 mm multiplied by 2 is 120. This means that a shutter speed of 1/120 of a second is safe enough to prevent camera shake at this focal length. That said, many modern cameras and lenses have image stabilisation features that actually allow you handhold your camera at much slower shutter speeds without risking camera shake.
Be careful while typing.
At this stage, I would like to point out the importance of being very careful when typing the term “shutter speed”. I was giving a presentation on this topic one evening at a photography club and was wondering why the audience looked perplexed and a little disturbed as I put up the title slide. My first slide had just informed my audience in giant letters that I was going to give them a detailed presentation about “Shitter Speed”. In my defence, “u” and “i” are right next to each other on the keyboard.
The chart above illustrates the effect your choice of shutter speed will have on capturing motion in the scene you are photographing. Notice that the faster shutter speeds freeze the motion of the person running while the slower exposure times blur the motion.
In our next tutorial, we will take a look at how aperture and shutter speed affect each other.
Improve your Photography Skills
The full collection of my photography tutorials covering exposure, camera settings, composition and light can be found in my Kindle e-book: Outdoor Photography Essentials. This e-book can be read on most Kindles or any tablet or smart phone with the Kindle app installed (€7.06 / $7.00 / £6.34).